All content in SharePoint sites is stored in a SQL Server database, including document and other data, configurations, and some, but not all, types of site customizations. SharePoint uses these types of databases, depending on whether it is SharePoint Server or SharePoint Foundation
1. Content Databases :
For example, WSS_Content, which contains the typical site
content, such as:
All documents, news, links, contacts, and so on.
All web parts and their settings.
All local customizations done with SharePoint Designer.
2. Config Databases :
For example, SharePoint_Config, which contains the global
configuration settings shared among all SharePoint servers in
3. Service Application Databases :
For example, Managed Metadata Service and User Profile
Service Application. These databases contain configuration
settings specific for their service applications.
4. Log Databases :
For example, WSS_Logging, which contains logs of activities.
A default configured SharePoint Server 2010 Enterprise edition has at least 19 different databases.The most
important of all these databases are the content databases, because they contain the actual site content. If you have these databases, you can install a new farm, connect the content databases,and get all data back — at least all list content. If the new farm does not contain all features and
web parts that the old farm had, you will probably not be able to restore the web pages that utilized these features and web parts. Still,you will be able to restore all list content in this recovered content database.